The environment plays a strong role in determining our health, opportunities and quality of life. Some impacts are negative, such as proximity to environmental hazards and pollutants: essentially a pollution burden. Some impacts are positive, such as access to parks, coastlines and open space: essentially an amenity benefit.
Environmental equity is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies (US EPA).
Environmental racism is the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards on people of color. One example, among many, is air pollution: a 2018 study of air pollution (specifically, particulate matter) found that Black communities are exposed to over 1.5 times more sooty air (particulates) than the general population. (American Journal of Public Health).